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By O. Dawson. Bryn Mawr College. 2019.

There is no let- sustains and enhances the wholeness of the human ting up order benzac 20gr with mastercard, because advancing technology currently being benzac 20gr line, while facilitating the realization of the per- encompasses the bulk of functional activities that sons’ completeness through “acting for or with” the nurses are expected to perform, particularly when person. These calls are specific mechanisms that persons use while allowing the nurse to respond with authentic intentions to know them fully as persons in the moment. Calls for nursing may be The purpose of this chapter is to describe and expressed in various ways, oftentimes as hopes and explain “knowing persons as whole,” a frame- dreams, such as hoping to be with friends while re- work of nursing guiding a practice grounded cuperating in the hospital, or desiring to play the in the theoretical construct of technological piano when his or her fingers are well enough to competency as caring in nursing (Locsin, function effectively, or simply the ultimate desire to 2004). As uniquely nates the harmonious relationship between as these calls for nursing are expressed, the nurse technology competency and caring in nurs- knows the person continuously moment to mo- ing. Assump- saving medications, institute transfer plans, or tions about human beings as persons, nurs- refer patients for services to other health-care ing as caring, and technological competency are presented as foundational to the process of knowing persons as whole in the mo- The entirety of nursing is to direct, focus, ment—a process of nursing grounded in the attain, sustain, and maintain the person. The entirety of nursing is to direct, The process of knowing persons as whole focus, attain, sustain, and maintain the person. In is explicated as technological efficiency in doing so, hearing calls for nursing is continuous nursing practice. The em- The process of knowing persons is continu- pirical, personal, ethical, and aesthetic ways of ous. In this process of nursing, with calls and knowing that are fundamental to understanding responses, the nurse and nursed come to persons as whole increase the likelihood of know- know each other more fully as persons in the ing persons in the moment. Grounding the process is the appre- ciation of persons as whole and complete in the moment, of human beings as unpre- As unpredictable and dynamic, human dictable, of technological competency as an beings are ever-changing moment to expression of caring in nursing, and of nurs- moment. This characteristic challenges the nurse References to know persons continuously as wholes, discour- Boykin, A. Nursing as caring: A model aging and ceasing the traditional conception of for transforming practice. New York: Jones and Bartlett, possibly knowing persons completely at once, in National League for Nursing Press. University, where she is founding director of the Workshops have been developed and conducted on Quantum Foundation Center for Innovation in critical thinking and competency skills for school School and Community Well-Being. Her writings include nursing values, is to enhance nursing practice and education inquiry groups for community assessments, and through nursing theory, using both innovative and cultural caring. Her current research includes traditional means to improve care and advance the the study of adiposity in children, health-care discipline. Parker received the President’s Leadership manuscript reviewer for the International Journal Award at Florida Atlantic University, recognizing of Human Caring. Parker’s active participation in nursing edu- she holds a bachelor’s degree in health administra- cation and health care in several countries led to tion, a master’s degree in nursing from Florida her 2001 Fulbright Scholar Award to Thailand. It is Atlantic University in Boca Raton, and a doctoral there that she continues to teach, consult, and par- degree from the University of Miami, Florida.

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However cheap benzac 20 gr with visa, each subject was Sigmund Freud viewed the conscience as one of tested in a room full of “planted” peers who deliberately two components of the superego cheap 20 gr benzac mastercard, the other being the gave the wrong answer in some cases. In this scheme, the conscience prevents people fourths of the subjects tested knowingly gave an incorrect from doing things that are morally wrong, and the ego- answer at least once in order to conform to the group. This theory suggests that the conscience is Asch’s experiment revealed other factors—notably developed by parents, who convey their beliefs to their unanimity and size of the majority—that influence con- children. They in turn internalize these moral codes by a formity even when ambiguity isn’t an issue. Even one dissenter decreases the Other psychologists have proposed different theo- incidence of conformity markedly. People who follow the lead of an initial dissenter Further Reading may even disagree with that person and be dissenting Weissbud, Bernice. Although the ambiguity and unanimity of the situation are powerful contributors Consciousness to the incidence of conformity, they are not the sole de- Awareness of external stimuli and of one’s own terminants. Individuals who have a low status within a group or are unfamiliar Wilhelm Wundt’s investigations of consciousness, with a particular situation are the ones most likely to begun in 1879, were central to the development of psy- conform. Wundt’s approach, called members of a study or activity group, or new residents to structuralism, sought to determine the structure of con- a community are more likely to be affected by the pres- sciousness by recording the verbal descriptions provided sure to conform. Personality traits, such as concern by laboratory subjects to various stimuli, a method that with being liked or the desire to be right, also play a role. Certain cultures proach to the study of consciousness was the functional- are more likely than others to value group harmony over ism of William James,who focused on how conscious- individual expression. Behavior- ganization managers, and even parents can establish an ism,pioneered by John B. Watson in the early 1900s, atmosphere or “culture” that either fosters conformity or shifted interest from conscious processes to observable allows for dissension and individuality. Teaching Your Child to was at the heart of Sigmund Freud’s model of human Handle Peer Pressure. He also formulated the concept of the preconscious,which functions as an Conscience intermediate or transitional level of mind between the The moral dimension of human consciousness, the unconscious and the conscious. A preconscious thought means by which humans modify instinctual drives can quickly become conscious by receiving attention, to conform to laws and moral codes. In contrast, the re- In meditation, an altered state of consciousness is pressed material contained in the unconscious can only achieved by performing certain rituals and exercises. The collective unconscious con- widely used in the United States for purposes of relax- tains images and symbols, called archetypes, that Jung ation. It has been found that during this type of medita- found are shared by people of diverse cultures and tend tion, people consume less oxygen, eliminate less carbon to emerge in dreams,myths, and other forms. In Jung’s dioxide, and breathe more slowly than when they are in view, a thorough analysis of both the personal and col- an ordinary resting state. Although sleep suspends the voluntary exercise of stances as alcohol, tobacco, and coffee. The major cate- both bodily functions and consciousness, it is a much gories of psychoactive drugs include depressants, which more active state than was once thought.

In their research buy 20 gr benzac overnight delivery, they have found that preschoolers understand that thinking is a human safe 20gr benzac, Flavell’s first position was as a clinical psychologist mental activity and that it can involve things that are in at a Veterans Administration Hospital in Colorado. They distin- ever he left there a year later to accept a position at the guish thinking from other activities such as talking, feel- University of Rochester in New York, first as a clinical ing, seeing, or knowing. However preschoolers greatly associate and then as an assistant professor of psycholo- underestimate the amount that they and others think, and gy. In though Flavell first undertook to write a book on theories other words, Flavell has found that, although preschool- of developmental psychology, he soon switched to a ers know that rocks do not think, they also don’t believe major study of the work of , publishing that their parents think all that much. This Throughout his career, Flavell’s books have received was the first major work in English on the research and critical acclaim for both their scholarship and their lively theories of Piaget and marked the start of the modern sci- and entertaining prose. That same year, Flavell of the and con- traveled to Paris for additional studies at the Sorbonne. Flavell’s research at Rochester focused on children’s understanding of the roles of others and on children’s Margaret Alic communication skills and developing skills. He first evaluated the skills needed for role-taking, the un- derstanding of what another person sees, knows, needs, Coombs, Karen. He served as president of the Society for Research in Child Development from 1979 to 1981. Since his arrival at Stanford, Flavell and his long- time research associates, his wife, Ellie Flavell, and Frances L. Greene, have studied preschoolers at the Bing Nursery School on the Stanford campus. They have also Forensic psychologists often work within the judi- studied elementary-school and college students. In re- cial system in such diverse areas as determining an in- cent years, Flavell has researched and developed his the- mate’s readiness for parole; evaluation of Austrian psychoanalyst and pioneer in the field of child psychoanalysis; daughter of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Systematic representation of data, arranged so that the observed frequency of occurrence of data falling within certain ranges, classes, or categories, is shown. Children realize that they ness of physical difference is followed by awareness of are male or female and are aware of the gender of others the cultural differences between males and females and by the age of three. However, at these ages they still do identification with the parent of the same sex, whose be- not understand that people cannot change genders the havior the child begins to imitate. Like its female gender is permanent, which occurs at about the age of counterpart, which Freud termed the Electra complex, seven. At this point they start the behavior of the Oedipus complex revolves around a child’s wish to members of their own sex. Although it has been support- possess the parent of the opposite sex, while simultane- ed by some research studies, Kohlberg’s theory has also ously wishing to eliminate the parent of the same sex, been criticized on the grounds that children do show cer- who is perceived as a rival.